The Wageningen soil trip was guided by Jasper and Marijn and showed us what landscape of North Holland is composed of and how it got to be that way. The photo above is an example of how various ice ages and river levels influence the physical landscape. What is also interesting is the effect that this has on the soils in the region and helps to explain why the Netherlands is the way it is. Below are some pictures of soil samples and dig sites, as well as the road leading to the aquifer site.
This trip helped us to visualize why the Netherlands is built the way it is and the engineering feats it took in order to make the country safe and habitable. Some of the engineering feats include dams and dike (dijk in Dutch), which are both designed to keep water out of the landscape. There were also various dikes built for various flood levels, for example a 100 year flood vs a 1000 year flood along the bank of the river. Amsterdam itself is named after the fact that it is located in a dammed area on the River Amstel, thus Amstel + dam = Amsterdam. An interesting landscape feature that we examined was the presence of sand in the soil, and the high levels of clay, this was examined more in depth in Hoge Veluwe National Park were sand dunes make up a significant portion of the natural landscape.